Laparoscopy is currently a widespread technique, chosen in many surgical procedures on abdominal organs both in the female reproductive system and in the digestive system.
The word etymologically comes from the Greek terms “laparus”, which refers to the soft part of the sides of the abdomen and “skopia” which means to look or observe, thus “to look inside the abdomen”. The first person to use it was a Swedish doctor in 1910 for diagnostic purposes, and since then new materials and instruments have been implemented and today practically any intervention that can be done openly can be also performed laparoscopically.
It requires general anesthesia. Technically, small incisions are made in the skin measuring 1 cm or less. Small tubes called trocars are inserted into the abdominal wall in number of 2, 3 or 4, through which we will introduce an endoscopic camera and the surgical instruments needed for the specific procedure. The abdomen is insufflated with CO2 gas in order to have a space to work, and by visualizing on a monitor the image emitted by the endoscopic camera from inside the abdomen, we can carry out each of the appropriate steps to complete the surgery. With an additional advantage, we have a magnified and well illuminated view of the surgical area.
In this way we reduce the abdominal scars to a minimum and consequently the post-operative pain and the possible complications caused by the opening of the abdominal wall, which means that recovery is much quicker and with better aesthetic results, reducing the number of days of hospitalization and the number of days off work.
On the other hand, in order to practice these techniques you must have a solid education and training to be able to develop the necessary skills to carry out the intervention safely, as we have to consider that the sensation of touch is very limited compared to what we would have operating directly with our hands, the approaches angles as well, and until 3D monitors were developed it was necessary to be oriented with the image on the screen in two dimensions.